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②相符过去时,分明句子是不进则退语态照旧被

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      时态和语态对于听力解题至关重要,听清了、理解了听力材料的时态,看清了题干和选项的语态能够迅速解题。以下,跨考教育[微博]英语教研室的老师们为大家整理了具体的答题思路。

    第一节时态

      一、步骤

    1.时态的分类:一般时;完成时;进行时。

      (1)先根据选项的区别点确定考题要点为时态,然后回到题句中寻找给出的或暗示的时间状语,缩小选择范围,进而选出正确答案;

    1.1.一般时:

      (2)根据谓语动词与句子主语或非谓语动词与其逻辑主语的关系,确定句子是主动语态还是被动语态。

    ①一般现在时:

      二、要点

    He writes a letter every day.

      1.以下几类动词一般不能用于进行时,同样不用于完成进行时:

    ②一般过去时:

      (1)表示感知的动词:hear, feel, notice, recognize, see, taste, smell;

    He wrote a letter yesterday.

      (2)表示意愿、情感的动词:desire, dislike, forgive, hate, like, love, prefer, refuse, want, wish, fear, love, hate;

    ③一般将来时:

      (3)表示思考、看法的动词:believe, doubt, expect, forget, hope, feel, mean, know, agree, realize, mind, recall, recollect, remember, trust, suppose;

    He will write a letter tomorrow.

      (4)表示所有、占有的动词:belong to, owe, own, possess, hold(容纳);

    1.2.完成时:

      (5)其他动词:cost, appear, concern, contain, consist, deserve, matter, seem。

    ①现在完成时:

      如:

    He has written the letter.

      I’d say whenever you are going after something that is belonging to you, anyone who is depriving you of the right to have it is criminal。

    ②过去完成时:

      (1997年考研[微博]题, belong表示归属,不用于进行式)

    He had written the letter when I came.

      He was seeing somebody creeping into the house through the open window last night。

    ③将来完成时:

      (1990年考研题,see表示结果,不用于进行式)

    He will have written the letter before I come.

      2. 不用will/shall表达将来时的形式:

    1.3.进行时:

      (1)be going to表示现在的打算和意图;

    ①一现在进行时:

      (2)arrive, come, drive, go, leave, retire, return, set off, start, take off等表示移位的动词的进行体表示按计划肯定要发生的将来动作;

    He is writing a letter now.

      (3)be to (do)表示安排、计划、决定、命令或注定要发生的事,如:

    ②过去进行时:

      Greater efforts to increase agricultural production must be made if food shortage is to be avoided。

    He was writing a letter when I came.

      (4)be about to (do)表示将要(做),如:

    ③将来进行时:

      Marlin is a young man of independent thinking who is not about to pay compliments to his political leaders。

    He will be writing a letter when I come.

      (5)be on the point /verge of (doing)表示“马上就要”,一般不与表示将来的时间状语连用;

    1.4.完成进行时:

      (6)be, begin, come, depart, get off, go, leave, return, start的一般现在时表示按日历或时刻表要发生的将来动作或事件,如:

    ①现在完成进行时:

      If you want your film to be properly processed, you’ll have to wait and pick it up on Friday, which is the day after tomorrow。

    He has been writing for two hours.

      (画线部分一般不用will be)

    ②过去完成进行时:when I called,he had been writing a letter for two hours.

      (7)在时间、条件、让步从句中,一般现在时代替将来时,但要注意区别从句的类型,如:

    2.使用一般现在时的时机:主语+一般现在时动词。

      I don’t know where he will go tomorrow. 我不知道他明天去哪儿。(宾语从句)

    2.1.表知觉、状态、所有:

      I’ll tell him when you will ring again. 我告诉他你什么时候再来电话。(宾语从句)

    I smell something burning.

      比较:I’ll tell him when you ring again。你再打电话时我告诉他。(状语从句)

    You look worried.

      (8)在make sure, make certain, see (to it) 后的that从句中,谓语动词用一般现在时代替将来时,如:

    This medicine tasts bitter to me.

      See to it that you include in the paper whatever questions they didn’t know the answer to last time。

    He has a book.

      (include 不能用will include或其他形式)

    Your hands feel cold.

      3.完成时是时态测试的重点,注意与完成时连用的句型和时间状语:

    I see a man standing there.

      (1)by/between/up to/till +过去时间、since、by the time/when +表示过去发生情况的从句,主句用过去完成时。如:

    He is a student.

      We had just had our breakfast when an old man came to the door。

    2.2.表习惯的动作,常以时间副词修饰:

      Between 1897 and 1919 at least 29 motion pictures in which artificial beings were portrayed had been produced。

    He goes to school every day.

      (表示1919年时已发生的情况)

    He writes a letter every day.

      (2)by +将来时间、by the time/ when +谓语动词是一般现在时的从句,主句用将来完成时。如:

    He always take a bus home.

      By the time you arrive in London, we will have stayed in Europe for two weeks。

    2.3.表真理,事实,格言:

      I hope her health will have improved greatly by the time we come back next year。

    The sun rises in the east.

      (3)by now、since +过去时间、in/during/for/over/the past/last few(或具体数字)years/days/months,主句用现在完成时, 但在it is +具体时间since/before这一句型中,主句更多的时候不用完成时。如:

    He ,who is lazy is doomed to failure.=he, who is lazy is doomed to fail.

      The changes that howe taken place place in air travel during the last sixty years would have seemed completely impossible to even the most brilliant scientists at the turn of the 19th century。

    Honest is the best policy.

      It is four years since John left school。

    2.4.表将来:begin/start/arrive/go/come等动词用一般现在时表将来。Does he come tomorrow?

      (4)在It is the +序数词/形容词最高级+that的定语从句中,谓语动词常用现在完成时。如:

    3.使用一般过去时的时机:主语+一般过去时动词

      It isn’t the first time that I have found myself in an embarrassing situation。

    3.1.表过去的动作、习惯、状态:

      (5)在no sooner…than…, hardly/scarcely…when/before…句型中,主句常用过去完成时。

    I saw him yesterday.

      (6)其他与完成时连用的时间状语:all this while, all this year, for some time, so far, already, before, just, long, yet等。

    He was born in 1978.

      4.完成进行时指动作在完成时的基础上还要继续下去。如:

    3.2.表过去的经验(也可用现在完成时):

      The company has been promising a rise in salary for ages, but nothing has happened。

    Did you ever see her before?=Have you ever see her before?

      The school board listened quietly as John read the demand that his followers had been demonstrating for。

    3.3.句中若有before,after,until等连词引导的从句,由于时间先后很清楚,可用一般过去时代替过去完成时。

      文章来源:跨考教育

    4.用一般将来时的时机:主语+will+原形动词表将来要发生的动作或状态。

    It will rain tomorrow.

    注意:①由连词when,unless,if,once等所引导的状语从句表示某条件要用一般现在时,主句要用一般将来时。

    When I have money,I will buy a car.

    ②be going to=will

    He is going to come.=he will come.

    5.使用现在完成时的时机:

    主语+have+p.p.(have译作:曾经)

    5.1.用以表示到现在为止完成的动作:

    I have just finished my work.

    5.2.用以表示到现在为止的经验,

    I have met him several times.

    5.3.用以表示到现在为止仍在继续的动作或状态:

    I have lived here 10 years.

    She has studied English since 2000.

    注意:表“曾去过”的经历时,用“have been”而非“have gone”

    He has gone toHong Kong.已经去了,现在人在香港;he has been to Hong Kong.曾去过,现在又回来了。

    6.过去完成时的时机:主语+had+p.p.(had译作已经,或曾经)用以表示截止过去某时所完成的动作或经历。

    He had studied English for10 years before he left for the States.

    He told me that he had seen the movies once.注意过去完成时不能单独存在,必须有一般过去时从句或表过去的时间副词短语连用方可体现出不同时间发生的两种动作。

    I lost the book which she had given me.

    7.使用将来完成时的时机:

    主语+will have+p.p.译作“将已经”,表示到将来某时已经完成或仍在继续进行的动作或经历等。

    He will have arrived in Chicago by this time tomorrow.

    When you come ,everything will have been finished.

    8.使用现在进行时的时机:主语+is/am/are+现在分词

    ①用以表示正在做的动作。

    I am doing laundry.

    ②用以表示即将发生的动作,常与表将来的时间副词连用。

    He is coming today.=he will be coming today.

    9.使用过去进行时的时机:主语+was/were+现在分词①表示过去某时正在做的动作:

    He was taking a bath when you called.

    ②表一般过去时中即将发生的事:

    He was dying=he was going to die.=he was about to die.

    10.使用将来进行时的时机:主语+willbe+现在分词,表于将来某时将进行的动作。

    He will be reading book this time tomorrow.

    11.使用现在完成进行时的时机:主语+have/has been+现在分词,译作“一直都在”,表示一直继续到现在且仍将继续下去的动作。

    She has been working with this company for 5 years.

    12.使用过去完成进行时的时机:主语+had been+现在分词,译作“一直都在”,表示一直继续到过去某时,而且当时仍在继续进行的动作。要注意的是:与过去完成时一样,不能单独存在,须有一般过去时连用。

    I had been sleeping when he came.

    13.使用将来完成进行时的时机:主语+will have been+现在分词,译作“将一直在”,表一直到将来某时,仍将继续的动作。

    I will have been studying English for ten yearsby the end of this year.

    14.时态的前后一致

    14.1主句若是一般现在时,从句不能用过去完成时和过去完成进行时,其它均可。

    14.2.主句若为一般过去时,则从句不能用表现在和将来的时态。

    14.3.从句表示真理时,恒用一般现在时,不必与主句一致。

    15."for+一段时间"与完成时的关系:

    (for/during/in/through/down through) the (past/last)five years.=since five years ago.自从5年前起,这些短语与现在完成时或现在完成进行时连用。

    I have been studying English for the past two weeks.

    16.since和完成时的关系:

    ①表“自从”时,可作介词,之后接名词或者动名词②since也可作副词连词引导一般过去时的状语从句,主句用现在完成时或现在完成进行时。

    I have been studying English since I went to college.

    He has lived here since 2000.

    ③since之后接明确的时点作宾语,不能接时段作宾语

    ④since后若是时段,一定要这段时间之后加ago。

    Peter has lived here since two years ago.

    ⑤现在完成时和现在完成进行时的动词与"for+一段时间"连用时,该动词所表示动作必须可连续进行。否则采用下列结构才能与since连用:it is+一段时间+since+非连续动词/时点

    It is twenty years since he married.

    第二节语态

    1.语态的种类:分主动语态和被动语态两种,用于被动语态的必须是及物动词。

    2.授予动词有两种被动语态:

    I gave him a book.(主动)

    ①He was given a book by me.(被动)

    ②A book was given him by me.(被动)

    3.动词+介词结构,也可变成被动语态:

    They laugh at me.→I was laughed at by them.

    Police looked into the case.→The case was looked into by police.

    4.否定句的被动语态

    They don't love him.→He is not loved by them.

    第三节虚拟语气(subjunctive mood)

    虚拟语气是一种表示假设状态的句型,由if引导的状语从句与主句构成。依时态的不同形成四种基本句型:

    1.纯条件的虚拟语气~用现在时

    If he is here,I will beat him.

    2.与现在事实相反的虚拟语气~用过去时

    If he were here,I would beat him.(but he is not here)

    3.与过去事实相反的用过去完成时

    If he had been here,I would have beaten him.kbut he was not here)

    4与将来的事实相反的用虚拟语气有~if从句要用助动词should,译作“万一”,主句则用过去时或现在时的助动词。

    If he should be here,I (would/will)beat him.

    第四节使用虚拟语气应注意事项

    1.表示强烈与真理相反的虚拟语气句型:

    If主语+were to+原形动词,主语+would等助动词+原形动词

    If the cat were tosmile,I would pass out.

    If the sun were to rise in the west,how surprised these sunflowers would be.

    2.if的省略:

    虚拟语气的if从句中若有表“完成”的助动词had或表“万一”的助动词should或were的出现时可将其置于主语前,而省略if。

    If he had done it,he would have felt sorry.→Had he done it.he would have felt sorry.

    He should tell lies,i would punish him.→should he tell lies,i would punish him.

    If he were lazy,he might fail.→were he lazy,he might fail.

    3.时态不一致的假设:

    也就是if从句与过去事实相反,用过去完成时;主句与现在事实相反,则置助动词过去时。句型如下:if主语+had+p.p.,主语+(would/could/might/should)+V+(now/today)

    If I had started saving then,I would have been able to buy a car now.

    4.可取代if的其它连词:

    If=in case(that)/on condition that/provided/providing(that)/so long as/as long as/此类连词一般只能用于纯条件情况下,其引导的从句均为一般现在时。

    In case he comes,let me know.

    I will take the trip with you on condition that you bear the expense.

    Iwill pardon him provided/providing(that)he acknowledges his mistake.

    Any book will do as long as it is interesting.

    注意:in case +(that)从句 万一……

    In case of+名词 万一……

    In case of an accident,don't panic=in case (that) an accident,don't panic.

    5.but for……若非/要不是……

    此类句型仅限于与现在事实及过去事实相反的虚拟语气

    5.1.与现在事实相反:若非/要不是……就……

    If it (were not/but for+名词)+(for+名词/一般现在时that从句),主语+(could/would/might/should)+not+原形动词

    If it were not that he works hard,I wouldn't like him.=If itwere not for his hard work,…

    =were it not for his hard work,…(要不是他努力工作,我才不喜欢他)

    =but for his hard work,…

    5.2.与过去事实相反的虚拟语气,若非当时……就……

    If it had not been(for+名词/一般过去时that从句),+主语(would/could/might/should/ought to)+not+have+p.p.

    If it had not been that he lent me the money,I could not have bought the book.=if it had not been for the money(which)he lent me,i could not have bought the book.=but for the money he lent me,i could not have bought the book.要不是他当初借钱给我,我就买不了那书了。

    But for可用介词without代替之后仍接名词。

    But for his help,I couldn't have done it.=without his help,I couldn't have done it.

    6.lest…(should)…以免……

    Lest为副词连词,引导状语从句,在该从句中助动词只用should,should往往省略。

    I got up early,lest I miss the train.

    注意:lest should=for fear that+主语+may+V.(表现在或将来的情况)

    +might+V.(表过去的情况)

    You muststudy hard lest you should fail the exam.=you must study hard for fear that you may fail the exam.=you must study hard for fear of failing the exam.

    7.as if=as yhough译作“仿佛……”,均为副词连词,引导状语从句,使用时有三种时态:

    7.1.表极大可能性,动词使用一般时态

    It looks as if(as though) it is going to rain.

    7.2.表与现在事实相反,要用一般过去时

    Mr.wang loves me as if(though)I were his own child.

    7.3.表与过去事实相反,用过去完成时。

    He looked as if (though)nothing had happened.

    7.4.as if或as though之后可接不定式,表示即将发生的状况。

    She opened her lips ss if(as though)(she was going)to speak.

    8.what if…should…?要是……的话会怎么样?本句型表对将来状况存疑的虚拟语气,if从句用助动词should。

    What if he should come?=what might happen if he should come?=what should we do if he should come?

    What if it should rain?=what if it rains?=what may happen if it rains?

    9.It is (about time/time/high time) +that从句的一般过去时译作“该是……的时候了”注意在使用本句型时that从句的动词要用一般过去时。It is time(that)he went to bed.(本句暗示现在该是睡觉时候了却没睡,其动作与现在事实相反故用一般过去时。)

    It is high time we did it.

    It is time our children learned some maners.

    上列结构可改为不定式,

    It is time he went to bed.=It is time for him togo to bed.

    10.if only…要是……就好了:本句型只用于与现在事实相反或与过去事实相反的虚拟语气中,即该句型只能用过去完成时或过去时

    If only he were here=I wish he were here.

    If only I had known it earlier.=I wish I had known it earlier.

    11.wish的用法:

    11.1wish之后接that从句时,一定要用虚拟语气有,一般过去时表与现在相反;过去完成时与过去相反。

    I wish he were here.

    I wish he had been here.=I would rather he had been here.

    12.hope的用法:之后接that从句时,用一般时态表示极大可能性:表现在情况用现在时;表将来情况用将来时;表完成的状况用完成时;表进行的状况用进行时。各that 都可省略

    Ihope (that) he is safe.

    Ihope he will beback.

    I hope they are having a good time.

    I hope they have finished the work.

    13.I hope与祈使句的关系:I hope接that从句时,句中可使用助动词may,形成祈使句,此时将I hope that删掉,再将may置于that从句的主语之前,动词仍用原形,改句号为感叹号。

    I hope that he may live long.→May he live long!

    I hope you may pass the exam.→May you pass the exam!

    注意:①上述结构变化中,以God为主语时,可省略may。例如:

    I hope God may bless you.→May God bless you!→God bless you!

    ②表君主万岁时,可倒装:

    I hope the king may live long.→May the king live long!→ long live the king!

    14wish&hope的异同:

    14.1.相同点:

    ①均可用不定式作宾语。

    Iwish to travel abroad.=I hope to travel abroad.

    ②都可作不及物动词,与介词for连用,表“期望获得”之意,以名词作for宾语。

    I wish for a chance to try it.

    14.2.不同之处:表“祝福”时,只能用wish,之后接两个名词或代词作宾语(类似授予动词)

    I wish you a good time.=I hope (that) you (may)have a good time.

    I wish my parents longevity.=I hope (that) my parents can live long.

    15.对过去事物猜测的三种句型:

    ①must have+p.p.一定曾经……he is learned,he must have recieved a good education.

    ②may have+p.p.可能曾经……he may have atayed up late last night.

    ③从cannot have+p.p.不可能曾经……he is honest,he cannot have stolen her money.

    ④表猜测的结构为疑问句时,要用Can…have…?句型之Can he have done it?

    16.didn't need to do和need not have done的区别:

    didn't need to V是表过去的事实,即“不必……”同时也没有如此做;但need not have +p.p.表与过去事实相反的虚拟语气,乃“本不必……但做了”

    I had enough money,Ididn't needborrow any from him.(事实是没借钱)

    Since you have enough money,you needn't have borrowedmoney from me.Whydid you still borrow some?(事实是借钱了)

    17.意志动词:有“建议”、“要求”、“规定”、“命令”、“主张”五大类。之后用that从句作宾语时从句中用助动词should且should可省略。

    建议:Suggest,advise,recommend,propose,yrge(呼吁)move(提议)

    要求:ask,require,desire,demand,request,insist(坚持要求)

    命令:order.command

    规定:stipulate,rule,regulate

    主张:advocate,maintain

    18.suggest.insist.maintain的另类用法:

    Suggest表“暗示”insist表“坚信”,maintain表“坚决认为”时,其后的that从句采用一般时态。

    19.insist on+动名词,坚决要……

    He insisted on doing it that way.

    注意insist on doing和persist in doing的区别是:insist on doing含有固执的意味;persist in doing含有能力坚持,不轻易放弃的意思。

    20.表“有必要的”形容词与that从句的关系:该从句用助动词须用should,且可省略。

    该类形容词有八个:necessary,important,esential,imperative,urgent,desirable,recommendable,advisable。

    21.that从句作同位语:

    That从句若是位于意志动词变形的名词之后,与该名词形成同位语关系时,从句中的should可省略。

    It is my suggestion that he (should) study abroad.

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